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domingo, marzo 16, 2008

There are currently 177 million children threatened by obesity-related diseases.

CI launches new Code to ban the marketing of unhealthy food to children

For more information on the CI Code and the Junk Food Generation campaign visit www.junkfoodgeneration.orgWorld Consumer Rights Day 2008: Consumers International (CI), and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) today launched proposals to drastically restrict the scope and scale of the marketing of unhealthy food to children across the globe.

This coalition is calling for the International Code on Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children to be adopted by national governments, as part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) strategy to tackle obesity and diet-related diseases.

The Code, which CI and IOTF will be recommending to the World Health Assembly in May 2008, tackles the failures of the food industry to regulate itself.

Adoption of the Code would be major step in helping to protect children.

There are currently 177 million children threatened by obesity-related diseases.

CI Director General, Richard Lloyd, urged:

"It's predicted that 2.3 billion people will be overweight by 2015, so we need to take action now if we want our children to grow up free from the threat of obesity-related health problems. This includes getting governments and the food industry to take immediate responsibility for the way junk food is promoted to under 16s; not just in rich countries, but across the world."

Download your copy of the Code and protect children's health by pledging your support - visit the new website for more information about the Junk Food Generation campaign and sign up to the Code!

Media support material can be downloaded from the press release.

World Consumer Rights Day 2008 - campaigning to stop the marketing of unhealthy food to children

For more information on the Junk Food Generation campaign visit Consumer Rights Day 2008: How come 22 million children around the world are overweight before they start going to school?

Every year, around the world, World Consumer Rights Day (WCRD) is celebrated on 15 March.

It marks the day President John F. Kennedy told the US Congress: 'Consumers by definition, include us all. They are the largest economic group, affecting and affected by almost every public and private economic decision. Yet they are the only important group... whose views are often not heard.'

The theme of this year's WCRD is Junk Food Generation - the Consumers International (CI) campaign to stop the marketing of unhealthy food to children.

CI is asking the World Health Organization (WHO) for an international code to ban the marketing of unhealthy food to children.

Around the world CI member organisations will be uniting in an international day of action to highlight the damage done by junk food marketing and to urge government ministers to support the Code ahead of the World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2008.

For more information watch this space and tune in on Saturday, 15 March 2008 for the launch of and more on the development of the Code.

Revealed! The marketing secrets of the drugs industry

Marketing OverdoseMarketing overdose campaign: The pharmaceutical industry spends US$60 billion on drugs marketing each year, twice as much as it spends on research and development.

Yet consumers know next to nothing about where this money is going.

To expose where pharma companies spend this money, how it increases drugs sales, and why this irresponsible behaviour is putting consumer health at risk, Consumers International has produced a series of short films for the Marketing Overdose campaign.



Raising the profile of consumers in competition decision-making

Competition: Markets exist to provide for the consumer. In order for consumers to have a good choice of products at reasonable prices there needs to be fair and competitive business practice.

Consumers International (CI) has worked on a range of competition issues over the last five years to help raise the profile of consumer organisations in competition decision-making.

This includes the recent release of a new training manual, Consumers and competition: An essential manual for consumer organisations, as part of a long running CI project to build the capacity of 14 member organisations in Europe to promote consumer welfare in competition decision-making.

The manual was followed by Samuel Ochieng's (CI's President) participation in the OECD Global Forum on Competition 2008 where he delivered a presentation on The politics of reform: Consumers and competition, specifically focusing on competition in developing countries.

You can read more about the EU competition project and download the OECD presentation. Also available to download is the new training manual, as well as the 14 national reports of the countries involved in the EU project.

CI speaks out against EC proposals on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs

Marketing OverdoseDrug marketing: In the week that Consumers International (CI) released a series of short films about the threat of direct-to-consumer advertising and the irresponsible marketing tactics of the drugs industry came the EC proposals on the provision of information on drugs.

The EC proposes that pharmaceutical companies should be able to speak directly to the public via radio and television about prescription drugs.

Commenting on these developments CI's Head of Campaigns, Justin MacMullan, said:

"By opening the debate on drug company information provision, the EC is kowtowing to pharma industry's demands to advertise directly to consumers. This is the first step towards US-style drug advertising and concepts such as 'Pharma TV'. Prescription drugs are not washing powders and should not be sold as such. The EC must protect the right of European consumers to independent, impartial information about healthcare."

To find out more about Pharma TV watch Informing the public, a short film by CI. Also visit Marketing Overdose - CI's campaign against the irresponsible marketing of drugs and for the latest commentary and analysis have a look at the Marketing Overdose blog

ISO 26000 - the latest developments

Corporate social responsibility: Consumers International (CI) is currently at the forefront of the drive for a new type of ISO standard; one that looks beyond product safety and reliability to consider the impact of production.

ISO 26000 is very important because it will set out how organisations that claim to be socially responsible give feedback to consumers. It is expected that this standard will be published by 2010.

The fifth and most recent meeting of this ISO SR (social responsibility) Working Group took place in Vienna from 10-16 November 2007 with the next meeting scheduled to take place in September 2008 in Santiago, Chile.

Read about the latest developments in the drafting of this new standard, the history of the development process and  the consumer influence; visit the Standards Resources Archive and play the ISO memory game.

Preserving street food life - join the CI street food campaign

Street food in Latin America - find out more at www.streetfood.orgStreet food campaign: Street food constitutes up to 40% of the daily diet of urban consumers in the developing world.

Yet, the cultural importance of street food is fragile.

Globalisation and urban development threaten these age-old traditions and, despite street food's vital importance to local communities, there are serious health issues to contend with.

Consumers International (CI) is working to preserve street food life, so that local consumers, street food sellers and inquisitive travellers can enjoy these great dishes safely.

Visit the campaign website,, and find out more about street vending and what you can do – how to join the campaign or even run your own campaign action.

Consumers given a voice at World Economic Forum in Davos

World Economic Forum 2008Sustainable consumption: Consumers International (CI) has been invited to present the consumer perspective on some of the world's most pressing issues, such as sustainability, intellectual property and advertising at the annual World Economic Forum (WEF) held in Davos from 23-27 January 2008.

CI Director General, Richard Lloyd, addressed the WEF and led the discussions on sustainable consumption.

He said, "Consumers need sustainable choices to be easy choices of comparable quality products. Better information at the point of sale; independent assurance of that information; fewer unsustainable choices and a stronger social and political norm for sustainability."

Read more about the discussions...

Lic. Nut. Miguel Leopoldo Alvarado

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Obesidad De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

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La obesidad es un exceso de grasa, determinado por un Índice de masa corporal o IMC aumentado (mayor o igual a 30). Forma parte del Síndrome metabólico. Es un factor de riesgo conocido para enfermedades crónicas como: enfermedades cardíacas, diabetes, hipertensión arterial, ictus y algunas formas de cáncer. La evidencia sugiere que se trata de una enfermedad con origen multifactorial: genético, ambiental, psicológico entre otros. Acumulación excesiva de grasa en el cuerpo, hipertrofia general del tejido adiposo.

Es una enfermedad crónica originada por muchas causas y con numerosas complicaciones, la obesidad se caracteriza por el exceso de grasa en el organismo y se presenta cuando el índice de masa corporal en el adulto es mayor de 25 unidades.

La obesidad no distingue color de piel, edad, nivel socioeconómico, sexo o situación geográfica.

Anteriormente se consideraba a la persona con sobrepeso como una persona que gozaba de buena salud, sin embargo ahora se sabe que la obesidad tiene múltiples consecuencias en nuestra salud.
Ahora se sabe que la obesidad está fuertemente relacionada como causal de otras enfermedades como lo son los padecimientos cardiovasculares, dermatológicos, gastrointestinales, diabéticos, osteoarticulares, etc.

El primer paso para saber si existe obesidad o no, es conocer el índice de masa corporal (IMC), lo que se obtiene haciendo un cálculo entre la estatura y el peso del individuo.

La obesidad es un exceso de grasa corporal, que por lo general, y no siempre, se ve acompañada por un incremento del peso del cuerpo.

Tabla de contenidos
1 Clasificación
2 Causas
3 Buscando el equilibrio
4 Tratamiento
5 Enlaces externos

Se puede establecer un índice de obesidad, definido como la relación entre peso real y teórico.

Obesidad exógena: La obesidad debida a una alimentación excesiva.

Obesidad endógena: La que tiene por causa alteraciones metabólicas.

Dentro de las causas endógenas, se habla de obesidad endocrina cuando está provocada por disfunción de alguna glándula endocrina, como la tiroides.

Obesidad hipotiroidea
Obesidad gonadal

No obstante, los adipocitos están aumentados de tamaño por acción de los ácidos grasos libres que penetran a éstos y, por medio de un proceso de esterificación, se convierten de nuevo en triglicéridos. Éstos antes han sido el resultado de la activación de VLDL circulantes en la absorción de ácidos grasos.

Es una enfermedad en cuya génesis están implicados diferentes factores, muchos de los cuales todavía no se conocen muy bien. Los genes, el ambiente, el sedentarismo, son condicionantes básicos que están implicados en la génesis de la obesidad así como los producidos por medicamentos o por distintas enfermedades.
El Síndrome de Prader-Willi (SPW) sería otra causa, en este caso, una combinación exógena y endógena.

Gráfica comparando los porcentajes de obesidad del total de población en países miembros de la OCDE. Para edades mayores de 15 años y un IMC mayor a 30.

Las causas de la obesidad son múltiples, e incluyen factores tales como la herencia genética; el comportamiento del sistema nervioso, endocrino y metabólico; y el tipo o estilo de vida que se lleve.
Mayor ingesta de calorías de las que el cuerpo necesita.

Menor actividad física de la que el cuerpo precisa.
Si se ingiere mayor cantidad de energía de la necesaria ésta se acumula en forma de grasa. Si se consume mas energía de la necesaria se utiliza la grasa como energía. Por lo que la obesidad se produce por exceso de energía, como resultado de las alteraciones en el equilibrio de entrada/salida de energía. Como consecuencia se pueden producir diversas complicaciones como lo son la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes mellitus y las enfermedades coronarias.

La herencia tiene un papel importante, tanto que de padres obesos el riesgo de sufrir obesidad para un niño es 10 veces superior a lo normal. En parte es debido a tendencias metabólicas de acumulación de grasa, pero en parte se debe a que los hábitos culturales alimenticios y sedentarios contribuyen a repetir los patrones de obesidad de padre a hijo.
Otra parte de los obesos lo son por enfermedades hormonales o endocrinas, y pueden ser solucionados mediante un correcto diagnóstico y tratamiento especializado.

Buscando el equilibrio
Se sabe que cada 250 gramos de grasa equivalen a 3.500 calorías. Si existe un exceso de grasa se deben calcular las calorías que representan y disminuirlas en la ingesta en un periodo de tiempo adecuado.
Contenido en calorías de diversos alimentos:
Cada gramo

Contenido en calorias
Grasa 9
Alcohol 7
Proteína 4
Carbohidrato 3,75

Y en cuanto a alimentos:

Contenidos en calorías
Ración de carne de vaca 483
Hamburguesa 300
Pan con mantequilla 100
Taza de té con dos cucharaditas de azúcar 67

Es necesario tratar adecuadamente las enfermedades subyacentes, si existen. A partir de aquí depende de buscar el equilibrio, mediante ajustes en la dieta.

La dieta debe ser adecuada a la actividad necesaria, por ello una dieta muy intensiva en personas muy activas es contraproducente. Debe de tenderse a realizar dietas más suaves y mantenidas.

Una vez alcanzado el peso ideal, lo ideal es mantenerlo con un adecuado programa de ejercicios y alimentación que sobre todo permitan no volver a recuperar la grasa y el peso perdido.

Enlaces externos
Asociación de Información al Obeso
Informacion especifica acerca de la obesidad
Información detallada sobre la Obesidad
Información sobre la Obesidad

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Categorías: Glosario de términos médicos Enfermedades endocrinas